The industrial revolution and its consequences reddit

The Industrial Revolution completely transformed the United States until it eventually grew into the largest economy in the world and became the most powerful global superpower. The industrial revolution occurred in a number of places across the world including England, North America, Continental Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. The American industrial revolution began in New England. Several large-scale textiles mills were established in the region during the late 18th and early 19th century which quickly led to widespread industrialization in the region:.

Although the early American industrial revolution was largely confined to New England, it eventually to spread to the West and then, after the second industrial revolution occurred in the late 19th century, spread to the South.

the industrial revolution and its consequences reddit

The Embargo Act of prohibited American merchant ships from leaving for foreign ports and prohibited foreign vessels from carrying American goods out of American ports. The act was the result of the Napoleonic Wars between France and England and was intended to cut both England and France off from the American market. The hope was that England and France would suffer economically and would then cease to attack American merchant ships and stop blocking each other from trading with the Americans.

The act had no effect on the British or French economy but completely devastated the American economy. But the lack of access to foreign goods forced the Americans to begin producing more of their own goods. The War of led to a British blockade of the United States eastern coastline, which brought shipping and fishing to a halt. The United States had a number of natural resources, such as timber, water, coal, iron, copper, silver and gold. Industries took advantage of these natural resources to manufacture a number of goods to put on the market.

Railroad networks in the U. Railroad work also attracted a large number of immigrant workers to the United States which provide an abundant labor supply for growing businesses. The immigrants who migrated to America were young, hard workers who were not afraid of risk and arrived determined to make something of themselves, according to Charles R.

Morris in his book The Dawn of Innovation:. They were disproportionately young adults with few dependents — adventurous risk takers who had come to work. The lack of government regulation allowed businesses to flourish and grow at a rapid pace. Business owners had full control of their companies without government interference.

Although this was good for business, it created widespread environmental problems and poor working conditions. In the second half of the 19th century, new inventions brought about even more industrialization. For example, the invention of electricity and the light bulb allowed factories to stay open longer which vastly increased production volumes.The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in history which was marked by a shift in the world from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.

It brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. However, life for the poor and working classes continued to be filled with challenges. Wages for those who laboured in factories were low and working conditions could be dangerous and monotonous.

Children were part of the labo u r force. They often worked long hours and were used for such highly hazardous tasks as cleaning the machinery. Industrialization also meant that some craftspeople were replaced by machines. Additionally, urban, industrialized areas were unable to keep pace with the flow of arriving workers from the countryside, resulting in inadequate, overcrowded housing and polluted, unsanitary living conditions in which disease was rampant.

The conditions for the working-class gradually improved as governments instituted various labour reforms and workers gained the right to form trade unions. Know about the positive and negative impact of the Industrial Revolution through the 10 major effects of this world changing event. The factory system was a child of the Industrial Revolution and developed and advanced during its course in the 18th and 19th century.

It replaced the cottage industry which was more autonomous with individual workers using hand tools and simple machinery to fabricate goods in their own homes. The invention of the water powered frame by Richard Arkwright in the s led to the formation of the first factories along the rivers in Britain. InArkwright built his first factory at Cromford. He built many small cottages close to it to employ labour from far and across, preferring weavers with large families so that women and, especially their childrencould work in the factory.

Byhe had over people with timed jobs, shifts and factory rules. The factory system generated a fortune for its few owners and his template caught like wild fire.

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Improvements in the steam engine and power loom further incentivised cheaper energy and better machines; and this positive loop fed the Industrial Revolution.

Capitalism refers to an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. With political control over the colonies and rise in technological innovations, Capitalism was on a rise in Britain. Factory owners and others who controlled the means of production rapidly became very rich and had more money to invest in technology and more industry.

In those times only the wealthy could vote in Britain with about 3 percent allowed to vote. With economic and political power they were in many ways the new rulers of the nation.

Soon the capitalists became the leaders in numerous countries across the world. The rise of cities was one of the defining and most lasting features of the Industrial Revolution. The growth in population due to the agriculture revolution and the rise in industry had reduced the opportunities in the rural areas causing large migrations to the industrialized cities. The population of Britain almost doubled in the 18th century.

By the end of the century 1 in 10 Britons lived in London which had a population of 1 million. InManchester had a population of only 22, Over the next fifty years, its population exploded and reachedBymore people were living in cities than in villages. The number of cities with populations of more than 20, in England and Wales rose from 12 in to nearly at the close of the century.

This trend was seen all around as other parts of the world industrialised. For many skilled workers, the quality of life decreased a great deal in the first 60 years of the Industrial Revolution. Skilled weavers, for example, lived well in pre-industrial society as a kind of middle class.The effects of the Industrial Revolution were vast and far-reaching changes in the political, economic and social structure of the countries in which it took place.

Beginning in Britain intechnological innovations and inventions spawned the growth of large machine-production factories and economic specialization. This revolution soon spread throughout Europe and the United States and had a multitude of effects upon each individual nation. Initially, these changes took place in the landscape of nations, as rural and formerly agricultural workers moved into urban settings.

The population shift prompted the growth of large municipalities, and with this, a need for municipal services. With the advent of large-scale factories, the worker was now much more dependent on an individual employer. Relationships between the capital employers and the laboring class became tense, driving the rise of Marxism in response. Eventually, the dominant political doctrines of both the United States and Great Britain adjusted from lassaiz-faire, in which the government interferes as little as possible to best support the economic system, to one of welfare capitalism, in which the state intervenes to protect the right of the laborer and to offer necessary services.

The Industrial Revolution also gave rise to professions, population expansion and a higher standard of living. What Were the Effects of the Industrial Revolution? More From Reference.

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What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment?The causes and consequences of the industrial revolution are located in the economic, social and technological.

This revolution began in England in the middle of the seventeenth century. Subsequently, in the nineteenth century expanded to the rest of the continent and the world. This process of transformation was favored by a series of simultaneous elements that laid the basis for its development. At this time the people of the high society had large sums of money coming from the exploitation in the American colonies, as well as raw material.

Having capital available was necessary to invest in some project. In addition to this, the Illustration made the English population ready to accept innovative ideas, such as those proposed by the industrial revolution. The most obvious consequence of Industrial Revolution was the institution of the machine, which alleviated the work of human labor and, in some cases, replaced it.

The causes of the Industrial Revolution can be seen from an economic, social and technological point of view. From the economic point of view, the availability of capital and the need to expand trade were the most relevant causes.

From the social point of view, the availability of labor due to the agrarian revolution was an essential element for the development of the Industrial Revolution. Finally, from the technological point of view, the appearance of the steam engine and other inventions was the true trigger of this process.

Industrial Revolution and Technology

In the seventeenth century, England had colonies in America that provided income from tax collection, product sales, among others. This made the capital of the great settlers increase considerably. With this availability of large sums of capital, it was necessary to invest it in some area that promised profit.

For this reason, when investors saw the benefits promised by the introduction of the machine, they decided to support the Industrial Revolution. In addition to capital, the colonies of England in America supplied large quantities of raw material, mainly cotton.

In England too, agricultural production was one of the most complete in Europe. The raw material was abundant but the craftsmen, responsible for transforming it into consumer products, did not give enough for such task. Moving from a manual system to a mechanized system promised to be the solution to this problem. International market demand had increased considerably.

As demand increased, there also had to be an increase in supply. Therefore, the producers were in need of streamlining the creative process. That is why the use of other systems faster than the human labor force: the machines. Before the Industrial Revolution occurred, England went through the agrarian revolution.

The need to increase the rearing of sheep made the production change in the fields: no direct consumption plants were being grown, but fodder for the beasts. The promotion of livestock took away from the peasants the land they cultivated. Many began to work in the haciendas raising sheep, but others were unemployed.

For this reason, the workers went to the cities in search of other jobs, favoring the industrial growth. The Industrial Revolution would not have been possible without the appearance of the steam engine and other technological innovations. The steam engine was perfected by James Watt and was used as a means to drive transport systems: railways and steamships.

Other inventions of the time were the flying shuttle applied in the textile industry, facilitated yarn work and hydraulic systems which provided energy from the water currents.

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Just as the causes of the Industrial Revolution lie on different levels, so the consequences of this process were felt in different areas of society.

From a demographic point, the population grew because of the revolution. Also, a process of internal migration from the countryside to the city was experienced. For its part, the economy of the industrialized countries was transformed into a sustainable one. In addition, the new concepts of capitalism and private property. However, the most evident consequence was the industrialization of modern societies.

This element still has repercussions in our days. The economic stability created by the Industrial Revolution had repercussions on the organization of societies.Industrial Revolution refers to the major transition of the world that took place during the period tofrom a completely agrarian, manual and handicraft economy to a completely mechanized, modern one dominated by technology. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and then spread into France, Germany, Netherlands and other countries across the world in a short time.

The Industrial Revolution is noted as a very important event in the history of the world. The Industrial Revolution had impacts on almost every sector of the economy and society. The world saw multiple technological progresses after the revolution.

Historians have noted down multiple reasons for the rise of the industrial revolution. Before the Industrial Revolution, almost all the nations in the world were completely agrarian economies that depended on farming for income.

Transportation facilities were underdeveloped and hence exchanges of goods between places were limited. Life expectancy was very low due to poor medical facilities. After the onset of the industrial revolution, there occurred tremendous development in every aspect of the world. There occurred major changes in technological, economic and social aspects of the world.

The Industrial Revolution initially took place in Britain. The reason for Britain to be the primary site of the revolution is due to different geographical, political, economic and social factors and peculiarities. As we know, Britain is an island nation and has extensive natural resources like coal and iron.

Britain had a monopoly over trades over sea and owned ports in all prime locations. The English citizens also enjoyed a better standard of living than the others around the globe. Political situations also favoured Britain to pave the way to the revolution. It, being a colonial economy, had capitalist visions and could hire better labourers in cheap.

10 Causes and Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

Before the onset of the revolution, the English farmers relied on manual work for production of food grains and on traditional farming methods like subsistence farming and two-crop rotation method. The peasants were poorly paid for their manual work. From the beginning of the 16 th century, the ownership of land saw a change.

Landowners now wanted to gain total control of land that was earlier divided into different portions for labourers. An increase in land and labour productivity came along. InJethro Tull invented the seed drill, which could be used to sow seeds in the farm. This increased the production of food grains by almost five folds. Following this, different types of equipment like the Rotherham plough were invented and new production techniques, like four crop rotation system, were employed.

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This led to a huge increase in the yield of food grains produced in Britain. With the technological betterment of farming came the possibility of better diets, better health and an increase in population. As the population increased, more demand for food grains was raised. The agricultural sector kept seeing more and more technological advancements that led to a rapid increase in production.

It also started agricultural trading with other countries of the continent, thus leading the country into a better financial position.

the industrial revolution and its consequences reddit

The rise in population also meant an increase in demand for different other goods too. The country now was demanded to produce more output from the textile industry. This led to the need for more advancement in the textile industry of Britain. The advancements that thereby occurred in the textile industry turned out to be the chief reason for the industrial revolution.

The increase in population gradually led to the need for more employment. Peasant who earlier worked in rural fields thus started enclosure movement, migrating to cities in search of job.

The Industrial Society: Hotel Transylvania

As urban centres could offer better living and employment conditions, the number of people migrating to cities saw an increase, thus leading to urbanization. With better labour force and mechanization, factories grew.Industrialization played a great role in the shaping of American society. There were both social and economical changes taking place. One of the major changes was the construction of the transcontinental railroad that finished in Railroads created an increased demand in manufacturing since the businesses could now produce and sell in larger amounts.

The new industrializations were controlled by businessmen as appose to generations before where politicians were in charge of everything. Major figures such as Andrew Carnegie owner of the Carnegie Steel Company, John Rockefeller owner of the Standard Oil Company, Cornelius Vanderbilt who laid miles of railroad tracks, were some of the first very successful business owners who made millions of dollars during these years.

While major business were moving forward economically, other groups of people, such as farmers were experiencing negative changes in their lifestyles.

Even though the farmers were still putting in the same amount of work, the prices of their crops were decreasing. It made more sense economically to ship large amounts of crops across the country.

So for most of the farmers this was a big loss, because they could not produce nearly enough to compete with bigger businesses. This led to farmers and their families move to the cities in hopes of finding a better life. Often times they would all live in one room in an apartment, which did not have proper plumbing and other utilities. Living in such conditions caused many diseases, increasing the percentage of deaths in the city.

Indue to an increase of urbanization, 1 out of 4 people were out of work in the cities. Many unemployed workers came together and formed different unions and tried protesting multiple times. Industrialization also had a major impact on the lives of women and children. Women were subjected to work the same amount of hours as men, however they got paid half of the men wages. They were often hired to do the jobs that men wanted to do, working in unsanitary and dangerous conditions.

the industrial revolution and its consequences reddit

Even though it is hard to believe, industrialization did have a positive effect on women. They were finally earning their place in the society and becoming more independent. Child labor was also exploited in the factories. About 1. And the last major group of people that suffered from industrialization were the Native Americans.

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As the railroad use became more common, many people moved westward and destroyed the Native American homes. There were many major massacres such as Sand Creek Massacre in where many Indian women and children were killed.The use of steam-powered machines in cotton production pushed Britain's economic development from to Built more than years ago, this steam engine still powers the Queens Mill textile factory in Burnley, England, United Kingdom.

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This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Leveled by. Thursday, January 9, This acceleration in the processes of technical innovation brought about an array of new tools and machines. It also involved more subtle practical improvements in various fields affecting labor, production, and resource use.

The technological revolution, and that sense of ever-quickening change, began much earlier than the 18 th century and has continued all the way to the present day. Perhaps what was most unique about the Industrial Revolution was its merger of technology with industry.

Key inventions and innovations served to shape virtually every existing sector of human activity along industrial lines, while also creating many new industries. The following are some key examples of the forces driving change. Agriculture Western European farming methods had been improving gradually over the centuries.

Several factors came together in 18 th -century Britain to bring about a substantial increase in agricultural productivity. These included new types of equipment, such as the seed drill developed by Jethro Tull around Progress was also made in crop rotation and land use, soil health, development of new crop varieties, and animal husbandry. The result was a sustained increase in yields, capable of feeding a rapidly growing population with improved nutrition.

Industrial Revolution

The combination of factors also brought about a shift toward large-scale commercial farming, a trend that continued into the 19 th century and later. Poorer peasants had a harder time making ends meet through traditional subsistence farming. The enclosure movement, which converted common-use pasture land into private property, contributed to this trend toward market-oriented agriculture. A great many rural workers and families were forced by circumstance to migrate to the cities to become industrial laborers.


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